Various items of clothing, also known as apparel, garments, dress or attire are worn not only in order to protect the body against extreme weather conditions but also for functional as well as cultural, social reasons. Clothings also have an attached emotional value for the wearer. It actually reflects social classes, sexes, occupation, marital status and ethnic or religious affiliation. Apparel, Clothing & Garments can be categorized based on innumerable criteria- Clothing by Fashion, Clothing by Fabrics, Men's Clothing, Women's Clothing, Kids Clothing, Industrial Clothing, Infant Wear, Animal Clothing etc.
There are four major kinds of textile processing - fiber processing, yarn processing, fabric processing and garment processing. Garment processing has grown to a great extent during the past few years. This growth can be attributed mainly to the denim garments, which is the largest garment segment today.
Garment finishing is mainly done through wet processing. Garments are dyed for imparting color to them. Proper finishing can provide a better look to the apparel, change the feel and texture of the fabric, and can also add value to the end-product. Various types of finishes are given to the garments which include peach finish, anti-microbial finish, wrinkle free finish, aroma finish, UV guard finish, acid wash, enzyme wash, moisture management, laser coating etc. The factors to be considered while processing include the choice of chemicals, production limitations and types of machinery used. Usually garment processing is done on small scale which minimizes the damage risk. If some changes are to be made or the process of finishing has to be replaced, it could be done easily in small scale productions.
Seam Engineering in Apparels
The most basic unit of an apparel or garment is fiber which is further converted into yarns and threads before the final product- the fabric or the garment- comes into being. Threads used for construction and stitching of garments are vital to the Apparel Industry. Seam Engineering includes seam and stitch construction while manufacturing garments. The basic principle involved here is- more thread a stitch consumes, the greater will be its strength. Greater seam strength can be achieved by adjusting the sewing threads tensions, threads controls, adjustment of machines and eyelets etc. Revolution in thread manufacturing has ensured the availability of thread quality as per the fabric demands. If the factors like quality parameters of threads and machine type, lubrication of machine and threads are kept in mind, it can add quality to apparels manufactured.
Defects in Garments
For the textile and apparel industry, product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibers, yarns, fabric construction, colour fastness, designs and the final finished garments. Quality control in terms of garment manufacturing, pre-sales and posts sales service, delivery, pricing, etc are essential for any garment manufacturer, trader or exporter. Certain quality related problems, often seen in garment manufacturing like sewing, colour, sizing, or garment defects should never be over looked.
Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely.
Variation of colour between the sample and the final garment, wrong colour combinations and mismatching dyes should always be avoided.
Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of various parts of a garment like sleeves of XL size for body of L size garment can deteriorate the garments beyond repair.
Broken or defective buttons, snaps, stitches, different shades within the same garment, dropped stitches, exposed notches and raw edges, fabric defects, holes, faulty zippers, loose or hanging sewing threads, misaligned buttons and holes, missing buttons, needle cuts or chews, pulled or loose yarn, stains, unfinished buttonhole, short zippers, inappropriate trimmings etc. all can lead to the end of a brand name even before its establishment.
Market Segments for Apparel, Clothing & Garments
Men have, of late, become very fashion conscious. As a result, along with the formal and casual wears for men, the market is open for variety of formal as well as designer cloths including jackets, jeans, pants, shirts, shorts, trousers, T-shirts, under wears, sports wears, beach wears etc.
Fashion keeps on changing and more so for women's clothing. From formal, casual, and corporate wears to designer and exclusive wear, women's clothing doesn't know any boundaries. Ladies Frocks, tops, capris, skirts, T-Shirts, tunics, jeans, nighties, shirts, shorts,trousers, swimsuits, outerwear, waistcoats, wraparound, blouses- all have their own ever increasing markets.
The market of children's wear is expanding at a very fast rate competing with the women's apparel sales. Kids Caps, dresses, jeans, jumpers, school uniforms, shirts, shorts, T-Shirts are all manufactured on large scales to fulfill the demands of the market. Infant wears like bibs, diapers etc. are also in great demand.
With the increasing industry establishments and the growing concern of the manufacturers towards the safety of their workers, the market for industrial clothing is growing due to the demand of work apparels and protective garments. Boiler suits, industrial gloves, industrial leather jackets, industrial safety trousers, industrial tool bags, leather leg guard, leather safety sleeves- the list is increasing continuously.
People these days have become more adventurous and love such sports where there is thrill. Along with other water and adventurous sports, the sports using various animals are also liked by them. Apart from this, animals are also widely used in farms etc. As such, the market for such items as animal blankets, harness sets, horse boots, bridle, halters, harness and saddle are growing very fast.